One of the biggest practical issues in higher education today is the rising and insanely high cost of a college education–obviously. The cost of going to college is not something we talk about a lot here at USACollegeChat, partly because there are so many other people talking about it all the time. But sky-high cost is the reason behind the topic we are going to discuss in this episode: speeding up college graduation–that is, graduating in fewer than the traditional four years.
Of course, given that so many students these days are taking longer than the traditional four years to graduate–so many, in fact, that six-year graduation rates are a standard part of college data reporting–graduating in fewer than four years takes on a new meaning. When I was in college some decades ago, everyone knew one or two kids who finished in fewer than four years, and we all thought those kids were incredibly smart. But there was no institutionalized plan for speeding up graduation–at least not at my university.
1. The Early College Movement
Speeding up graduation is something that Marie and I know a bit about. Back in 2009, Marie and I and principal Chris Aguirre co-founded an Early College high school in Brooklyn. While many Early College high schools were concentrating on getting high school students into college courses earlier while still in high school, our high school concentrated on getting high school students out of high school quicker and into college full time.
We adopted Chris’s crazy idea that all of our public school students–most of whom posted just average or below-average middle school grades–could be put on a three-year high school completion schedule by using trimesters instead of semesters during the school year. To be clear, that meant that our students could graduate in three years instead of the traditional four. Well, it was hard work, but it worked. At the end of our first three years, about 65 percent of our first class of students graduated–a full year early–and went on to college. We actually beat New York City’s four-year graduation rate. By the way, virtually all of the rest graduated the following year, on time.
[In February], [NYU] announced a series of measures that [makes] it easier to graduate in under four years, part of an initiative aimed at diminishing the university’s enormous affordability problem.
In some ways, the school is just catching up with its students. Ellen Schall, a senior presidential fellow and the head of the university’s affordability steering committee, which is tackling college cost on a number of fronts, said that about 20 percent of N.Y.U. students already graduated ahead of schedule.
“We were surprised,” Professor Schall said. “That’s part of what convinced us we needed to make this more transparent and more available to more students.”
Students have long found ways to make it through school more quickly to save money. But there is increasing momentum to formalize the process in the face of ballooning outrage over college costs and student debt ? while N.Y.U. is expensive, many other private universities [also] cost $60,000 or more a year. (quoted from the article)
I was also surprised that 20 percent of NYU students graduated in fewer than four years. Perhaps that is really a sign of the times–a confluence of high college costs, an increase in options for earning actual college credits while in high school through Early College and dual enrollment programs, and the fact that more and more students are taking Advanced Placement high school courses and exams to try to get high enough scores to earn some college credits.
According to the article, here are some ways that NYU is going to help its students graduate quicker:
. . . [W]hile students pay for 18 credits per semester, many actually take only 16, officials said, so the university will increase the number of two-credit courses it offers.
It will also allow many students to transfer in up to eight credits from other schools, like local community colleges where they can take inexpensive classes over the summer–in the past, this has been allowed on a case-by-case basis. In addition, the university has trained advisers to help students create schedules that will get them to their three-year goal. (quoted from the article)
Okay, so I guess if students took an extra two-credit course each semester, or 18 credits instead of the typical 16, that would give them 108 credits in six semesters, or three years, leaving students perhaps another 20 credits shy of graduation. Allowing students to transfer in a certain number of credits from cheaper summer courses or from college courses taken while in high school puts these students closer to the goal line. At that point, they would need to take several heavier-than-18-credit semesters or additional courses during the summer at NYU itself–both of which would cost money. No one said it would be easy, but a substantial portion of $66,000 is a lot of money to save.
Furthermore, there is no doubt that students would need trained advisers to make this work. I imagine that there are confusing regulations galore that no student could ever figure out on his or her own at every college in the U.S. I recall how hard it was to get our kids out of high school in three years. Marie and I spent countless hours scheduling kids and checking to make sure that all of the State’s and City’s graduation requirements were being met as we went through those three years.
3. Stories from Other States
In the article, Ms. Harris widens her lens and tells these stories about public universities:
Gov. John Kasich, Republican of Ohio, pushed to make it easier for students in his state to graduate from public colleges early by allowing more credits from high school or technical programs. Gov. Scott Walker, Republican of Wisconsin, included in his budget proposal this month that schools in the University of Wisconsin system should create a three-year degree for 60 percent of its programs by the summer of 2020. Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind., which is a state school, has also been experimenting with three-year degree options. (quoted from the article)
I think it is significant that colleges in the University of Wisconsin system–which would hopefully include the flagship campus at Madison–might create three-year degrees for 60 percent of its programs over the next few years. Of course, we will see what happens to that proposal. But whatever happens, it seems likely that other such proposals in other states might not be far behind. It is also important to notice that public universities are making these moves. As you know, public universities are often the default college solution for many students who cannot afford private colleges. And, for many such students, the cost of four years at their state’s best public institutions is, unfortunately, not affordable, either.
Here is what Ms. Harris says about private colleges:
Among elite private institutions, official [accelerated]programs remain rare, though Wesleyan University, the Connecticut liberal arts school, announced a formalized three-year track about five years ago. (quoted from the article)
Students who graduate in six semesters (three years of normal course loads plus summer courses) may expect to save about 20 percent of the total cost of a Wesleyan education. The three-year option is not for everyone, but for those students who are able to declare their majors early, earn credit during Wesleyan summer sessions, and take advantage of the wealth of opportunities on campus, this more economical path to graduation can be of genuine interest. . . .
For most students, the greatest challenge lies in figuring out a way to earn . . . [enough] credits and complete the particular course requirements for the major in six semesters instead of eight. Understanding the ways of earning additional credit and accelerating the pace of one’s semester standing is crucial for developing a feasible three-year academic plan. (quoted from the website)
Okay, saving 20 percent isn’t bad–not quite a full year’s savings, but enough to make it worth pursuing.
Interested Wesleyan students will have to earn credits faster and will also have to declare their majors early, presumably in order to ensure that they can get all of the major’s requirements met. So, no waiting around till junior year and no changes once a student is headed down a given track. Clearly, accelerated graduation is not for the student who is taking his or her time exploring subject fields and majors and even trying out more than one major.
Let’s look at the ways Wesleyan says that students can earn additional credits on an accelerated three-year schedule:
Most students who graduate early use a combination of pre-matriculant credit, summer credit, and in-semester course overload. . . .
Pre-matriculant credit. Up to 2.00 pre-matriculant credits [that is, actually credits for two courses] may be applied towards graduation.
Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate test credit. In most cases (exceptions include Biology, English, Computer Science, and Physics), it is necessary to first complete a course in an appropriate Wesleyan department to convert an AP or IB exam into Wesleyan credit.
College courses taken in high school. To be eligible for Wesleyan credit, the course must have been taken with college students and taught by a college professor on a college campus. If the course is listed for credit on the high school transcript, it may not be used for Wesleyan credit. (quoted from the website)
Of course, we all understand taking courses in the summer and taking additional courses during a regular semester. But the ways to earn credit before a student gets to Wesleyan are especially interesting and specific. Wesleyan places clear and academically rigorous restrictions on using AP or IB test credit as well as on using credits for college courses taken in high school. For example, it will not take dual enrollment course credit, and it will not take credits from the type of college courses that many Early College high schools now run. I actually couldn’t agree more with Wesleyan’s position on both of those; in fact, our Early College high school put our third-year students into courses that Wesleyan would have loved: on a college campus, with other college students, and taught by a college professor.
So, given all of these regulations, how many Wesleyan students actually graduate early? According to the article, the Wesleyan president “estimated that about 20 Wesleyan students annually graduate in three years, up from roughly three a year before [we] made the option official” (quoted from the article). That’s a big increase, of course, though not a substantial portion of the approximately 750 freshmen Wesleyan admits in a year.
4. What’s the Downside?
So, what’s the downside to an accelerated college experience other than the intense and likely difficult academic experience that we have already mentioned? People seem to believe that the biggest downside of all is that students will simply miss out on what it means to have the full college experience?including making friends (and future connections) of all kinds, exploring extracurricular activities, taking advantage of internships and study abroad programs, and the like. In fact, students on accelerated schedules do engage in all of these, but it is probable that some things will be missed in the face of the considerable academic pressure caused by taking additional credits each semester and each summer.
Is the hard academic work and some missed opportunities worth it? Is going to a more expensive college that a kid loves for three years better than going to a cheaper college that a kid is less excited about for four years? Here’s just one more thing for you to think about, parents, as you get your own teenager ready to make a college decision next month.
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Last week, we continued our virtual tour of colleges with the private colleges in the six states of the New England region: Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. As we said then, there are a lot of well-known and not-so-well-known institutions in these New England states, even though the states themselves are quite small, and a lot of those institutions are in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Last week, we discussed nationally known higher education institutions, which draw students internationally, as well as a selection of institutions with one or another kind of special focus (that is, faith-based institutions, single-sex colleges, institutions with a particular academic focus, and one college for students with special learning needs). This week, we are going to talk about a host of small liberal arts colleges and a few institutions that are probably better known in the New England region than in other regions of the country.
A special heads up to our New York State listeners and other listeners in the Mid-Atlantic states who are worried about sending their kids away to college: New England is not really very far away. Maybe this is as outside your comfort zone as I am going to get you. But there are so many options in New England that it might be enough.
And, as we always say, no college has asked us or paid us anything to include it. These are our very own selections.
1. Liberal Arts Colleges
Let’s start by saying that some of our most prestigious and some of our oldest small liberal arts colleges are located in New England, including several consistently ranked in the top 10 by anyone’s standards and a bunch more that would be in anyone’s top 20.
Turning first to a trio of colleges in Maine, we have Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Colby College in Waterville, and Bates College in Lewiston—all small liberal arts colleges, with a couple thousand students, attractive student-to-faculty ratios of 9:1 or 10:1, and just over 30 varsity sports teams. Though SAT scores are optional at both Bowdoin and Bates, about two-thirds of their applicants submit them. Average SAT subtest scores are about 670 at Colby, 680 at Bates, and 730 at Bowdoin.
Bowdoin, one of the highest ranked liberal arts colleges nationally, was chartered in 1794 by the General Court of Massachusetts, when Maine was still part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Governor James Bowdoin II and his son were both substantial benefactors for the college that today carries the family name (Anglicized from French grandfather and great-grandfather Pierre Baudouin, a Huguenot immigrant who arrived here in 1686). With an undergraduate-only enrollment of about 1,800 students (about 30 percent students of color and coeducational since 1971), Bowdoin offers 40-plus majors, grounded by traditional distribution requirements in five liberal arts and sciences areas.
Bowdoin makes an effective and official endorsement of the liberal arts in two ways—first, the Statement on a Liberal Education, adopted by the faculty in 2004; and second, what is known as “The Offer of the College,” written a hundred years earlier in 1906 by Bowdoin’s president, William DeWitt Hyde:
To be at home in all lands and all ages;
to count Nature a familiar acquaintance,
and Art an intimate friend;
to carry the keys of the world’s library in your pocket,
and feel its resources behind you in whatever task you undertake;
to make hosts of friends…who are to be leaders in all walks of life;
to lose yourself in generous enthusiasms and cooperate with others for common ends –
this is the offer of the college for the best four years of your life. (quoted from the website)
Bowdoin’s tuition and fees are what you might expect by now in our travels through New England—about $48,000 per year. Interestingly, Colby and Bates post a comprehensive fee (including room and board) at about $62,000 per year—so comparably priced for tuition, if it had been broken out separately.
Let’s look briefly at Colby, founded in 1813, the twelfth-oldest private liberal arts college in the U.S. Colby offers its approximately 1,850 undergraduates a choice of 57 majors. About two-thirds study abroad at some point in their college lives, perhaps in the College’s annual January Plan session, when students focus on one thing only—a course, an internship, a study-abroad opportunity, or a research project. Colby has a No-Loan Policy, which “will meet 100 percent of [a student’s] calculated financial need, and . . . will meet that need with grants and campus employment—not student loans” that have to be paid back (quoted from the website). As part of its serious commitment to the environment, Colby worked hard to achieve carbon neutrality—one of only a handful of colleges to do so.
Bates is located in Lewiston, home of substantial French Canadian and Somali immigrant communities. Founded in 1855 by abolitionists, Bates was the first coeducational college in New England. When it opened its doors, it admitted students without regard to race, nationality, or religion; some of its early students were former slaves. In keeping with its founding values, Bates is also known for its inclusiveness, where student organizations are open to all students and there are no fraternities or sororities. The approximately 2,000 undergraduates study in 33 majors in two semesters and a short-term session in the spring, when students focus on one thing, often off campus (similar to Colby’s plan).
Let’s move on to Vermont and take a look at Middlebury College in Middlebury, located between the Green Mountains and the Adirondacks. A prestigious liberal arts college, which also offers some graduate programs at other sites here and abroad, Middlebury has been known for its excellent language programs for a hundred years. Middlebury was founded by a few men in town in 1800 to educate men for the ministry and other professions. The first African-American citizen to earn a bachelor’s degree got it at Middlebury in 1823, after Vermont became the first state to abolish slavery.
Middlebury now serves about 2,450 undergraduates, studying in 44 majors, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 9:1—again common for these liberal arts colleges. As we have also seen at other colleges, Middlebury has a January term, when students focus on one course or an internship. In the best classic liberal arts tradition, Middlebury students must fulfill two sets of distribution requirements— (1) one course in seven of eight academic fields (including foreign language, with offerings in 10 languages); and (2) one course in each of four cultures and civilizations areas:
Courses that focus on some aspect of the cultures and civilizations of Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and the Caribbean
Courses that focus on the process of comparison between and among cultures and civilizations, or courses that focus on the identity and experience of separable groups within cultures and civilizations
Courses that focus on some aspect of European cultures and civilizations
Courses that focus on some aspect of the cultures and civilizations of northern America (United States and Canada) (quoted from the website)
With 31 varsity sports and 31 NCAA championships since 1995, Middlebury has an active sports scene—and a lot of skiing for fun. Admission is very selective, with the Class of 2019 posting average SAT subtest scores very close to 700. Most incoming freshmen are in the top 10 percent of their high school class. Like its collegiate peers, tuition and fees run about $48,000 per year.
Coming quite a bit later to the game was Bennington College in Bennington, Vermont, founded in 1932 as a progressive liberal arts institution. Originally a women’s college, it became coeducational in 1969. It claims to be “the first to include the visual and performing arts in a liberal arts education, and it is the only college to require that students spend a term—every year—at work in the world” (quoted from the website). Today, it serves just about 650 undergraduates in 10 areas of study and about 100 graduate students, with a student-to-faculty ratio of 9:1.
The seven-week off-campus winter Field Work Term, which is required of students every year, sees students working or interning in 35 states and 40 countries on five continents. Students complete two 14-week semesters in addition to the Field Work Term. Bennington’s liberal arts education is somewhat self-determined, as described on the website:
The Plan Process is the structure Bennington students use to design and evaluate their education. In a series of essays and meetings with the faculty throughout their years at Bennington, students learn to articulate what they want to study and how they intend to study it. They identify the classes they wish to take, as well as how those classes relate to each other and the rest of their Bennington experience: Field Work Term, tutorials, projects beyond the classroom, and anything else they undertake. (quoted from the website)
Some courses run three weeks, some seven weeks, and some the full 14 weeks each term, with credits assigned accordingly. Students receive narrative evaluations at the end of each course, but may request letter grades; students interested in graduate school are encouraged to request letter grades for at least two years so that a GPA can be calculated. Bennington has both a traditional application route, using the Common Application as a base, and a more unusual Bennington-specific application. In either case, college admission test scores are not required. Bennington’s undergraduate tuition and fees add up to about $48,000—unfortunately, the norm among these New England colleges.
Connecticut also has a trio of relatively well-known liberal arts institutions—Wesleyan University in Middletown, Trinity College in Hartford, and Connecticut College in New London. All are well-rounded traditional colleges with attractive campuses and excellent student-to-faculty ratios, as befits small colleges, from 8:1 at Wesleyan to 10:1 at Trinity.
Trinity is the oldest of these, founded in 1823, and is the second-oldest college in Connecticut (after Yale). It has been coeducational since 1969 and now serves about 2,100 undergraduates and about 100 graduate students. It has the oldest example of Collegiate Gothic architecture in the country. Trinity offers 39 majors, including engineering, with “two engineering degree paths: a Bachelor of Science degree, accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET [Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology] and a Bachelor of Arts in Engineering Science degree” (quoted from the website)—truly unusual for a small liberal arts college.
Trinity is very proud of its Center for Urban and Global Studies (noting that over half of all people in the world live in cities today), its Human Rights Program and interdisciplinary major, its credit-bearing internships, and its study-away programs in New York City and seven sites outside the U.S. Incoming freshmen posted a B+ high school GPA, and tuition and fees will set you back about $51,000, on the high side of what we have been seeing.
Wesleyan, founded by Methodist leaders in 1831, shares a bit of history with Connecticut College, founded in 1911. Originally all male, Wesleyan became coeducational (to a limited degree) in 1872, about 40 years after its founding. Then, when it chose to exclude women again around 1911, some of its alumnae helped establish Connecticut College for Women, for obvious reasons. Today, Wesleyan enrolls about 2,900 undergraduates and about 200 full-time graduate students (about 30 percent are students of color). Its undergraduates study in 45 majors. Though Wesleyan does not require college admissions test scores, about 80 percent of the Class of 2019 submitted them for consideration. The average SAT subtest scores were about 730 to 740 across the board. About 65 percent of students were in the top 10 percent of their high school class. Not surprisingly, tuition and fees are about $49,000 per year.
Here is a quick look at Connecticut College, with about 1,900 undergraduate students studying in just over 50 majors and minors. Interestingly, each student is awarded $3,000 by the College to cover the costs of creating the perfect internship—in the U.S. or abroad—for each student in his or her area of interest. About 80 percent of students complete such an internship. Though the College does not require college admission test scores, about 70 percent of applicants provide them for review. Incoming freshmen post a set of SAT subtest scores hovering around 685. About 60 percent were in the top 10 percent of their high school class. The College has a comprehensive fee, which includes room and board, of about $63,000—which would be in keeping with residential students’ expenses at the other colleges we have been profiling. One of the most unusual things about the College’s website is the section called “Essays that Worked,” which is just that: sample essays from past applicants who were accepted. Of course, any college applicant could get value out of reading them.
So, let’s head north to Massachusetts to two of the traditionally highest-ranked liberal arts colleges in the U.S., both formerly men’s colleges: Williams College in Williamstown and Amherst College in Amherst. Williams opened in 1793, and Amherst followed some years later in 1821. Amherst’s first president had been president of Williams (there is still a rivalry today), and the president of the Board of Trustees at the time was Noah Webster. Amherst was established by Congregational clergy to educate primarily poor, but talented, students for a life in the ministry or other worthy careers. Williams went co-ed in 1970, followed by Amherst in 1975. Both have small enrollments of about 1,800 at Amherst and 2,000 at Williams (plus about 50 graduate students). About 35 percent of students at Williams and 45 percent of students at Amherst are students of color.
The colleges offer just over 35 undergraduate liberal arts majors. Student-to-faculty ratios are attractively low at 7:1 or 8:1. Williams offers its January Winter Study—the kind of focused program we have seen at a number of other schools (maybe New England is just too cold for students to be there in January), where students do a course, some research, an internship, or purposeful travel. Among its study-away options, Williams offers a semester at its Marine Studies Program at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut and a year-long program at University of Oxford. Amherst is a member of the well-known Five College Consortium, which we have talked about and will mention again. On an athletic note, Amherst and Williams played the first intercollegiate baseball game in the U.S. in 1859.
Students at these two colleges are super-smart. College admission test scores are required, and about 65 percent of freshmen in the classes of 2018 scored 700 or higher on the SAT subtests. About 85 percent of Amherst students and 95 percent of Williams students were in the top 10 percent of their high school class. As you might expect, tuition and fees are high: about $50,000 at Williams and a comprehensive fee (tuition, room, and board) of $63,000 at Amherst.
2. Colleges That Change Lives
As we have said in several earlier episodes, Colleges That Change Lives is a nonprofit organization that was founded after the publication of the book Colleges That Change Lives, by Loren Pope, a retired New York Times education editor. There are now 44 colleges and universities profiled in the book and on the organization’s website. Those that are included are not necessarily famous institutions. Most are smaller colleges and universities that have proved to be successful at developing students both personally and academically so that they can succeed in life after their undergraduate college years.
Three of the 44 institutions profiled are located in New England. You should read about them in the book or on the website to learn more about them. They are Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts; Marlboro College in Marlboro, Vermont; and Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts.
Hampshire is the fifth member of the Five College Consortium, centered in Amherst. It is by far the newest of the five colleges, having been founded in 1970 after a long planning process, and it is the least traditional of them as well. Its students are bright, creative, and motivated. While very selective in admitting freshmen to a student body of just 1,400 students, Hampshire does not consider college admission test scores “in any way” for admission or for financial aid awards. Its students study in five interdisciplinary schools and create their own individualized majors—called “the concentration” at Hampshire. The concentration includes courses and required volunteer work at Hampshire or in the community and required work from various cultural viewpoints as well as fieldwork and internships, if they make sense for the self-designed program. As seniors, Hampshire students complete a self-designed rigorous final independent project, which includes original work, similar to a graduate thesis. The campus is lovely and idyllic. The price tag is predictable at about $47,000 in tuition per year. My visit to Hampshire with my son about five years ago made me want to go back to school and go there myself.
You should read about both Clark and Marlboro in the Colleges That Change Lives book or on the website. Clark enrolls about 2,200 undergraduates and another approximately 1,000 graduate students and has incredibly appealing “5th-Year-Free Accelerated B.A./Master’s Degree” programs in 14 fields, in which students can earn a master’s degree in just one year at no cost. Marlboro’s approximately 230 undergraduate students (there are another approximately 80 graduate students) follow a self-designed interdisciplinary program while working closely with faculty in small classes, individual tutorials, and advising sessions and living in a self-governing college community. The average high school GPA of incoming freshmen last fall was a 3.6 at Clark and a 3.2 at Marlboro; college admission test scores are considered at both if submitted, but are not required by either institution (about 60 percent of admitted students submitted them at Clark, but only about 25 percent at Marlboro).
3. Institutions Better Known in New England
New England also has a large number of institutions that are better known in the region than in other parts of the U.S. Let’s look at a few.
Founded in 1914 by Gertrude I. Johnson and Mary T. Wales as a business school, Johnson & Wales University (JWU) has been adding new career fields, new degrees (now including advanced degrees), and new campuses (now including Charlotte, Denver, and North Miami) ever since. With its main campus in Providence, Rhode Island, JWU describes the program for its 10,000 students (largely undergraduates) this way:
Our educational approach is designed to help you identify your career field. You can develop a structured plan, starting your first term, to build industry knowledge, professional skills and practical work experience to excel.
Build a toolkit that serves you for life. Our unique education model integrates academics and professional skills, including real-world projects in our hands-on labs, taught by our industry-expert faculty.
Round out your education with related work experiences and structured internships around the globe, along with career services, community service and leadership opportunities. (quoted from the website)
Undergraduates pursue serious career preparation in the College of Culinary Arts, School of Business, School of Hospitality, School of Engineering and Design, School of Professional Studies (with three equine-related majors), and six majors (two of which are directly career related) in the School of Science and Liberal Arts. And, yes, there are student organizations and varsity sports teams, too.
College admission test scores are mostly optional, except for the Honors program and some majors. Undergraduate tuition and fees run close to $30,000 per year—which seems like a bargain, given the prices we have been seeing in this episode and in last week’s episode.
Founded in 1929 (a lot later than many New England colleges), Quinnipiac University, with about 6,500 undergraduates and 2,500 graduate and professional students, is located on two campuses near Sleeping Giant Mountain in the small New England town of Hamden, Connecticut (a third campus for the professional and graduate schools, including law and medicine, is not far away). Undergraduates can study in 58 degree programs in six schools and colleges: the College of Arts and Sciences and the Schools of Business and Engineering, Communications, Education, Health Sciences, and Nursing. Quinnipiac offers a traditional college experience, with Division I varsity sports teams, school organizations (including fraternities and sororities), and red brick buildings surrounded by trees and green lawns. And perhaps, with an election year approaching again, you have heard Quinnipiac University Poll results in the news.
Incoming freshmen this year at Quinnipiac posted average SAT scores in the mid-500s across the subtests, and about 20 percent were in the top 10 percent of their high school class. Admissions staff note that they are looking for a B+ overall high school average. About 50 percent of students come from New England states, and another approximately 45 percent come from nearby Mid-Atlantic states. Tuition and fees are about $42,000 per year—just about the going rate for the region.
Founded a few years later in 1932 as the New Hampshire School of Accounting and Secretarial Science, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) offered its first bachelor’s degrees in 1966 and has been expanding into other fields and innovative programs ever since. Currently, SNHU enrolls about 3,000 students at its main campus in Manchester, where undergraduates can study in about 50 degree programs in three schools: the Schools of Business, Education, and Arts and Sciences. SNHU also offers accelerated bachelor’s degrees completed in three years in 10 business fields.
College admission test scores are optional. A couple of years ago, average SAT subtest scores for the approximately 50 percent of admitted students who submitted them were in the high 400s, and admitted students posted, on average, a high school GPA of about 3.1. Undergraduate on-campus tuition and fees are a relative bargain at about $32,000 per year.
SNHU is, however, a leader in online education, with about 60,000 online students studying in more than 200 career-focused and liberal arts degree and certificate programs. The courses are “asynchronous”—meaning that students can do their coursework at any time of the day or night rather than in online sessions at specific times with faculty and other students. I heard a presentation by an SNHU administrator at a College Board conference a couple of years ago, and I was quite impressed then with what I heard. Online tuition runs about $10,000 per year if a student is taking a full-time college course load. That’s a great bargain if you have a child who needs to or badly wants to study online. As we have said a number of times in our NYCollegeChat episodes, we are wary of having first-time freshmen commit to full-time online study—or even a course or two online—because it takes a lot of maturity and self-motivation and self-discipline to study online successfully. Many college freshmen just don’t have that. However, your child might be an exception.
Let’s wind up with a smaller faith-based college in Colchester, Vermont: Saint Michael’s College (affectionately known as St. Mike’s), enrolling about 2,000 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. Undergraduates study in about 35 liberal arts and sciences majors, plus business, computer science, education, journalism, pre-pharmacy, and engineering (through two 3+2 programs, one with the University of Vermont and one with Clarkson University). Here is what St. Mike’s says about its Catholic foundation and its influence on life at St. Mike’s today:
Saint Michael’s College is . . . the only Edmundite college in the world. We were founded in 1904 by the Society of Saint Edmund, an order of priests that came to Vermont from France more than 100 years ago, and whose ministry is based on service, hospitality and education.
Our passion for social justice means we don’t just talk about improving the world. We have a history of it. Part of the Edmundite legacy is the vital role they played in the Civil Rights movement in the South. We embody that spirit with nearly 70 percent of our students volunteering through our MOVE (Mobilization of Volunteer Efforts) Office. Our Peace and Justice program of study brings issues into the classroom, and the Edmundite Center for Peace and Justice connects the campus community to peace and justice concerns and resources.
The Society of Saint Edmund has a meaningful presence on campus. Their inclusive nature, caring ministry, tradition of hospitality and passion for social justice are at the heart of on-campus culture. Several Edmundite priests are active members of the faculty, while others are focused on the Society’s ministries in Selma, Alabama and New Orleans, Louisiana.
Understanding the history and importance of Christianity and other religions, as well as examining questions of philosophy, ethics and the common good, are an integral part of the Saint Michael’s curriculum. In everyday life on campus, the opportunity to serve others, and the chance to look inside yourself and explore your own path to the greater good, are always at hand.
Our students come from all walks of life. No matter what your spiritual and religious affiliation (and even if you have none at all), you’ll be welcome and comfortable at Saint Michael’s. . . .
As part of our Liberal Studies Curriculum, students are required to take two courses in Christian Traditions and Thought. Both of these courses are College-level academic courses which do not require or expect any particular religious affiliation. The first course is a Religious Studies course in the general study of Christianity and the second, more specialized, course is chosen by the student from a list of qualifying Religious Studies or Philosophy courses. (quoted from the website)
Just over 50 percent of students at St. Mike’s are Catholic. St. Mike’s is a close-knit community, with all full-time undergraduates living on campus for all four years (unless they are living at home with their family)—a remarkable feature, which makes it easy for students to feel comfortable with each other, join clubs and sports teams, and make good friends. Classes are small, and professors care about their students.
College admission test scores are optional, but accepted students in the Class of 2018 who submitted SATs posted a trio of scores in the high 500s. About 20 percent of students were in the top 10 percent of their high school class, and about 70 percent came from New England. Tuition and fees are about $41,000 per year—evidently, in the ballpark of the going rate for private colleges in New England.
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This week, we’re continuing our series on choosing where your child should apply to college by talking about student with academic challenges.
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This week, we’re continuing our series on choosing where your child should apply to college by talking about how options for students with academic issues.
Every student’s high school record is not as perfect as his or her parents might wish. The two most common problems are that the GPA (that is, the grade point average of high school courses) is not as high as it could be or should be or that the SAT or ACT scores (that is, the scores on the standardized college entrance examinations) are not as high as they could be or should be. Either of these problems makes choosing colleges to apply to a tense discussion.
Who is in the more difficult situation? Is it a student whose high school GPA is lower than ideal for whatever reason—sports teams, time-consuming hobbies or other outside activities, interest in the opposite sex, laziness, mediocre teachers, or family issues? Or is it a student whose SAT or ACT scores are lower than ideal for whatever reason—unfamiliarity with the test, refusal to study for the test or take practice tests, unavailability or unaffordability of a prep course to get ready for the test, test anxiety, or just a lackadaisical attitude toward standardized tests or college preparation generally? Let’s look at these two scenarios.
1. Students with Mediocre Or Low SAT/ACT Scores
What do we mean by mediocre or low scores? Let’s take the SATs as the example. If a student scores below 600 on any of the SAT subtests (reading, writing, and mathematics), that is a mediocre or low score. Scores in the low 600s are going to be problematic for most selective colleges, too.
Having mediocre or low test scores is likely an easier problem to solve than having mediocre or low high school grades. While students’ SAT or ACT scores are important to most top-ranked colleges, there are some colleges—including some really good colleges—that do not put so high a priority, or indeed any priority, on these test scores.
If you read the admissions blurbs on college websites, you will quickly see quite a few colleges that declare that SAT or ACT scores are not as important as high school grades and that the real picture of a student comes from the long and hard work the student has—or has not—done in classes over the course of the high school years. Those colleges will state that high school grades will tell them more about a student—about the student’s determination and perseverance and motivation, for example—than his or her performance on one test given on one Saturday morning. Indeed, they will cite research that says that high school grades are a better predictor of college success than standardized test scores—for all of the reasons that common sense would tell you.
For years, a relatively small number of colleges had said that SAT and/or ACT scores were not required in their admissions process. More recently, more colleges have been added to this list—so many, in fact, that this group of colleges now has a name: “test-optional” colleges. One very recent addition to that list is Bryn Mawr College. Professor Marc Schulz, a member of the Bryn Mawr admissions committee was quoted on the Bryn Mawr College website in July, 2014, as saying this: “We looked not just at the national data, but also took a very hard look at our own data over the last several years. It was clear that the standardized tests added very little predictive information after accounting for the strength of applicants’ academic work in high school and the admissions staff’s review of the whole application.”
Now, there is also something called “test-flexible” colleges. These are colleges that give students a choice of which standardized test scores to submit during the application process. Some of these policies are more “flexible” than others. Here are a few of the “good” colleges that have some flexibility in choosing test scores to submit: Colby College, Colorado College, Hamilton College, Middlebury College, and New York University.
By the way, you can search for and find all kinds of lists of “test-optional” and “test-flexible” colleges online. But, because admissions policies change from time to time, you really need to check on a college’s website to tell just exactly how the college does or does not require or use SAT or ACT scores. For example, some colleges require standardized test scores for some applicants, like home-schooled students and international students, and not for others, like students who are U.S. citizens and went to high school in the U.S.
We will talk more about SATs and ACTs in an upcoming episode in a future series—how to prep for them, when to take them, how many times to take them, what the SAT IIs are, and more.
2. Students with Mediocre Or Low High School Grades
What do we mean by mediocre or low high school grades? If a student has a GPA below 3.0, that is a mediocre or low GPA. GPAs of 3.0 to 3.3 are going to be problematic for most selective colleges, too. If the high school GPA is on a 100-point scale, a GPA in the low 80s or lower is a mediocre or low GPA.
Unfortunately, there are no “high school grades optional” colleges that we know about. Certainly, most colleges will claim to look at the whole picture—a complete profile—of a student during the admissions process; but, that whole picture always includes high school grades. While there can be reasons that high school grades are lower than the student is capable of earning—such as difficult family situations or personal problems or trauma—those reasons would have to be explained compellingly in an essay or an additional letter of some sort to the college. In short, it is very difficult to explain away mediocre or low high school grades.
When a student has mediocre or low high school grades, it is ideal if that student happens to have high SAT or ACT scores. Then, the college can imagine that the student is bright, but perhaps had some reason for not performing as expected in high school classes. None of those reasons would be a great excuse, but some colleges will make an exception for such a student.
However, most students who have mediocre or low high school grades do not have high SAT or ACT scores. For those students, the choice with the highest cost-benefit ratio is probably a public two-year—or maybe public four-year—college. By the way, great public four-year colleges can be just as difficult to get into as private four-year colleges, so many of them are probably out of the running, too.
Instead, look at two-year community college, which gives a student a chance to erase a poor high school record with a better community college record. As we said in our first series, Understanding the World of College, a student who completes an associate’s degree at a two-year college can transfer that entire degree—that is, all the credits that were earned in completing that degree—to a four-year college and be well on the way to earning a four-year bachelor’s degree. When a student has earned that two-year associate’s degree, the spotty high school record is really a thing of the past for most, if not all, four-year colleges.
To be sure, there are four-year public and private colleges that take students with mediocre or low high school grades. The question for parents is whether those colleges have as good a reputation as the kind of four-year public or private college a student might be admitted to after a successful experience at a two-year community college. It might also be a matter of money. Doing the two years at a community college could save money that could then be put into a better four-year college for the final two years.
Of course, for parents of younger students, remind them that there is no easy route to a good college if high school grades are poor.